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The development of the photographic process was studded with such discoveries and inventions, and many other advances in photographic glass plates and printing methods were made during the 19th century.Victorian exponents included John Edwin Mayall (1813-1901), who snapped some of the earliest photographs of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert; Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-79), noted for her photographic portraits and mythological images; and Oscar Gustave Rejlander (1813-75), the Swedish cameraman and photomontage expert who worked with Charles Darwin on The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.
The great 19th century American realist painter, Thomas Eakins (1844-1916), for instance, was an avid user of the camera, who employed photography as part of his pursuit of realism, rather than as a short-cut or aid to composition and perspective.
Pictorialism referred to (typically dreamy, 'soft-focus') photographs that were effectively "created" in the dark room.
Instead of recording the image of a particular subject, the photographer manipulated the printing process, in order to create the desired effect.
Improvements ( in the reduction of exposure time, the daguerreotype) were found by German Professor Heinrich Schultz (1687-1744) and French physicist Louis Daguerre (1787-1851), in 1837, with Daguerre being responsible for the first ever photograph of a person in 1839.
In parallel to this, in 1832, the French-Brazilian artist and inventor Hercule Florence (1804-79) had fashioned a similar process, called Photographie, while the English inventor and pioneer camera expert William Fox Talbot (1800-77) was busy inventing the calotype process, which produced negative images.