Refusal skills dating
In the community and environmental domains, strategies have been developed to increase the enforcement of public policies and ordinances that inhibit adolescent substance use.
These include efforts targeting tobacco and alcohol outlets, including restrictions on their location and density and on alcohol and tobacco advertising.
It is known that even the most effective and comprehensive school-based strategies, and even those that reinforce their messages across multiple grade levels, are only slightly more effective than school-based programs that are generally discredited in the early twenty-first century. In the YRBS data, about 16 percent of high school students report having had sex with four or more partners; 48 percent of adolescent African-American males report four or more sexual partners.
There has evolved a consensus among both practitioners and researchers that school-based programs, by themselves, are insufficient. 2000 Annual Summary: Effective Prevention Principles and Programs. "Implementing a Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention Strategy." In Increasing Prevention Effectiveness, ed. Forty-two percent of sexually active respondents did not use a condom at last intercourse.
The most salient of these is the "Risk and Protective Factor" framework, which has identified a variety of psychosocial factors associated with ATOD use.
In the individual domain, substance use has been linked to values and beliefs about and attitudes toward substances, genetic susceptibility, early ATOD use, sensation seeking, and various psychological disorders including anti-social, aggressive, and other problem behaviors.
In the family domain, ATOD use has been associated with familial substance use, poor parenting practices including harsh or inconsistent discipline, poor intrafamilial communication, and inadequate supervision and monitoring of children's behaviors and peer associations.
In the peer domain, substance use has been linked to social isolation and association with ATOD-using and otherwise deviant peer networks.
While most drinking on college campuses occurs in neighborhood bars and residential contexts such as fraternities, relatively little has been done to develop and implement demonstration programs that increase enforcement of, and penalties for, selling or otherwise supplying liquor to underage students. Ennett, Susan; Tobler, Nancy S.; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; and Flewelling, Robert L.1994. A Meta-Analysis of Project DARE Outcome Evaluations." American Journal of Public Health 941401. Sexual risk increases with the number of partners and the failure to use condoms.Rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus are particularly high among sexually active female teens.An individual's risk is affected by STI prevalence among the pool of potential sex partners.A variety of strategies have demonstrated effectiveness in preventing or reducing ATOD use.Project Alert, described by Phyllis Ellickson and colleagues in a 1993 article, and Life Skills Training Program, described by Gill Botvin and colleagues in 1995, are the two most-prevalent effective classroom-based-curricula.